– What mechanisms drive the quasi-periodic 11-year cycle of solar activity?
– How is active region magnetic flux synthesized, concentrated, and dispersed across the solar surface?
– How does magnetic reconnection on small scales reorganize the large-scale field topology and current systems and how significant is it in heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind?
– Where do the observed variations in the Sun’s EUV spectral irradiance arise, and how do they relate to the magnetic activity cycles?
– What magnetic field configurations lead to the CMEs, filament eruptions, and flares that produce energetic particles and radiation?
– Can the structure and dynamics of the solar wind near Earth be determined from the magnetic field configuration and atmospheric structure near the solar surface?
– When will activity occur, and is it possible to make accurate and reliable forecasts of space weather and climate?
Here’s a GIF of what the sun looked like yesterday from the SDO.